THE NEWTON UNIVERSE
Make me a universe, said Mernyth, one that is compatible with the known laws of physics, and which corresponds to observations of the cosmos. Maybe use Ockham’s razor to shave off ideas added to the standard model. Shave off paradoxes, recourse to infinities, inflation from nothing, universes without number, strings, singularities, extra dimensions, dark matter, dark energy, ideas of non-reality, and things like that. Run things backwards if necessary in order to make it work. Make me a new paradigm. There has to be some simple underlying theory, some unified force, which accounts for nature, for the things we observe. Also, as Mr. Newton required, admit nothing more than such as can be true and is sufficient to explain appearances. If you can make such a universe, perhaps it can be the one you in reality live in.
All right Mernyth, said I, you shall have your universe. We start with a resonance, a standing vibration. These things have been around a long time. Mr. De Broglie liked them. This vibration is the basic building block in your universe. We will call it the planck unit. It is as big as Mr. Planck said it was. Remember, it is not a particle, just a resonance. Call it a vibration if you like, or even the prime resonance. The planck unit can have several nodes, and can resonate in several different ways. These are not extra dimensions, they are simply nodes. While they can vibrate in different ways, they are stable at any temperature and at any time. But they can be converted into mass.
Your universe is a field, a three dimensional matrix, made up of these resonances. They line up and resonate together, each adding strength to the whole matrix. This is the Higgs field. The resonance of the planck unit is the only "force" there is. When the planck units come too close together, they merge, they grab each other, and we have mass. The energy that once held together part of the matrix is now in use to hold the mass together. When the matrix snaps and makes up a mass, there is not as much matrix left locally, and whatever is there has to stretch to connect up and keep everything in balance. This stretching is what we call gravity. The presence of mass in an area of the matrix makes the matrix thin and stretched. A mass tends to move from where the matrix is thick to where it is thin. For instance, when a ball is thrown into the air, the matrix is thinner "below" the ball than it is "above" it, so the ball "falls" toward the earth. This thinness makes galaxies move toward each other. As you can see, there is indeed only one "force" in your universe, it is the strength of the plank resonance, manifested in different ways. What we call "mass" is an assembly of planck units which have left the matrix and vibrate together to make up the particle. A particle holds itself together with entanglement, analogous to the entanglement that can take place between particles. There are, however, a number of ephemeral resonances and particles within a mass resulting from these entanglements. It takes a lot of resonances to make up mass. So we get Mr. Einstein’s relationship of mass and energy. Resonances flying apart in a particle accelerator are unstable resonances emerging from the smash up. Quantum mechanics gives descriptions of the way the planck units which make up mass interact with each other.
An interesting thing about the matrix is that it jiggles. This is the way it works. When a massive object moves through the matrix, it condenses the matrix before it, and lets the matrix go back in place after it moves through. No energy is lost or gained; there is no "friction." Strangely, there is no time dimension in stretching of the matrix, but there is a time dimension in the movement of a particle through the matrix. This is the key to understanding the "spooky action at a distance." This spookiness has to be real in order to have quantum jumping, collapse of the wave, and the entanglement of particles. When a mass accelerates through the matrix, it gains mass, it builds up and collects plank units. The stretching of the matrix in any area is felt instantly throughout the matrix. There is no time dimension there. A hint of this has been around for a long time. The constant changes in the matrix cause it to jiggle. This might be shown with proper experimentation.
But how about "particles" of light? Aren’t they actual particles, and don’t they have a definite speed, the speed of light? Yes, dear Mernyth, light has a finite speed, but light is not particles. Light is an electrical-magnetic impulse. It can be thought of as a density wave making its way through the matrix, like a wave of water in the ocean. This density wave travels until it strikes a mass. Its energy may cause an electron in the mass to jump to a higher energy level, which may then be radiated away again. The wave is spread out, but when it strikes the mass, the wave collapses. It is ever a wave, never a particle, and has no rest mass. Light does not consist of discrete energy packets, but is absorbed in discrete energy quanta, with both Maxwell and Einstein correct! It can work because of having no time dimension at the quantum level.
Fine, says Mernyth, but what about the double slit experiment. How does a unit of anything pass through two slits and interfere with itself? It is always a wave, and as it approaches the slits, the wave passes through both slits. It can do this since it itself is a resonance, making waves in the matrix, in all directions. These waves act as feelers, guiding the unit through the two slits. The point here is that the energy is contained in the waves it makes in the matrix. This energy can make it through the two slits just fine. If a detector is activated, it interferes with and collapses the wave, and the unit passes through one slit. This collapse happens whether the detector is placed either before or after the particle passes through the slit. It should also be said that the waves of each unit spread out through the entire matrix. The energy of the unit is strongest near its center, but is felt everywhere. Every part of the universe "knows" where every other part is, and how it is waving. Your universe is one organic whole. As the energy of a unit can be felt everywhere, it exists in a since everywhere, and its energy can be briefly borrowed in various places. This is part of the spooky reality at the quantum level, and makes a quantum computer thinkable.
What about uncertainty? Does my universe contain uncertainty, or is there absolute causality? When two or more units combine their frequencies, the outcome is predictable. But they can combine in slightly different ways. They are standing waves, resonances, and they can strike each other in different places in their resonances and with varying momentum. Also, the matrix is jiggling all the time. Energy is always impinging upon a particle. Thus we have both constancy and variety in nature. Particles are always moving about as described in quantum physics. Sometimes entanglements affect status. Snowflakes are all the same composition, but no two are alike. This holds true at all levels, and gives rise to the possibility of free will as well as probability of action in advanced beings, such as humans, and even in less advanced beings. As we go higher up the scale of animate beings, the greater the freedom and the less the predictability. We can have several hums in our heads, but may choose which to notice. You will be interested that there is room in your universe for the possibility of the existence of beings freer than us. By the way, things exist in your universe whether one looks at them or not, but because of these uncertainties, there are probabilities at the quantum level and at other levels as well. Elementary particles dance, but the probability of where they are on their three dimensional dance floor is described by the laws of quantum mechanics. Relationships described by relativity and by quantum mechanics are compatible in your universe. It is just that a time dimension exists in one, but not the other. Einstein knew that something must be missing in order for quantum mechanics to be compatible with relativity. This turns out to be the absence of a time dimension at the quantum level.
Observing a particle may indicate which state exists at the moment of observation. There is no need for universes ad infinitum here. Entangled particles are in lock step at all times. But if you change the state of one particle, its mate will also change, no matter the distance apart, and with no time delay. Particles can appear to be in two or more places at a time. A particle can disappear in one place and appear in another place with no elapse of time. A particle can move back and forth between different places instantly, and you then have two or more virtual particles. Spooky, but real, and confirmed by experiment.
When resonances cling together to form a particle, the matrix stretches, and gravity is produced. Time is also produced, as it takes time for particles to pass through the matrix.
These considerations raise interesting questions and possibilities. Could arrangements exist in the matrix other than what we see in our material universe? If so, other entities or beings in the matrix might conceivably exist without the time dimension, moving from place to place at will, or be virtually in more than one place at a time.
Mernyth, you ask where all this comes from. Why is there something rather than nothing. Whence come the basic planck units. The answer is, from membranes. There is no need in your universe for many membranes, or membranes ad infinitum. Just two membranes, that’s all you need in your universe, a father universe and a daughter universe. Here’s how it works in your universe, Mernyth.
There is a senior membrane, a universe extending we know not how far. Black holes form in the membrane. But the other side of a black hole is always a white hole, with a worm hole between them. That’s lots of holes, but that’s how many we need to make your universe. Over some thirteen billion years ago, perhaps much more, this senior membrane banged against our membrane. In locations where there was a black hole in the senior universe, the black hole blew away the material. Behind every black hole, there is a white hole as Mr. Einstein said. What we see as a super-massive black hole in our universe is actually a white hole. Things can come out, but nothing can enter. It is "white" because in the immediate vicinity of the event horizon, prodigious amounts of energy is being produced. Baryogenesis occurs in the vicinity of the white hole. This could be falsified if material is seen actually entering the “hole.”
Some wonder where all the anti-matter has gone in our universe. As you know, when matter is created from energy, an equal amount of anti-matter is created with it. When a pair of resonances is created in the surface of the white hole, antimatter units remain trapped. Matter units are expelled. The white hole has gravity, but nothing can enter it. Matter can buzz around it, and be thrown out into the galaxy and beyond. In your universe, hold your breath, the matter from the parent black hole is expelled into our universe via the white hole. In the immediate vicinity of a white hole, conditions of heat and pressure are such that matter and antimatter are created in prodigious amounts. The produced antimatter never enters the white hole, it is part of it. Excess antimatter serves to keep the worm hole open, and maintains the connection with the senior universe. The matter of our universe is repelled from the white hole by the intense explosive force of the production of the antimatter–matter production, and by the galaxy wind. The central region of a galaxy is a real windy place. What has been interpreted as matter eaten by a black hole is in reality matter exiting a white hole. Even our Milky Way galaxy, old as it is, has matter exiting the white hole. The new matter spreads out in every direction, and forms the central bulge of a spiral galaxy. At first, the explosive force is so great that a great deal of matter is ejected in powerful jets. These tend to decrease over the life of the galaxy. As the white hole grows, the galaxy grows. The bigger the white hole, the cooler and less active it is. Over time white holes can merge, and their galaxies interact. They form some irregulars as they interact, and then ellipticals over time. Some galaxies, such as the Seyfert galaxies, may explode with large amounts of additional matter. The universe is a very busy place.
So now you have your universe. More than fourteen billion light years ago a big bang occurred. The senior membrane banged into us, although we were not there to see it. It did not bang in one place out of nothing. It banged all over the place. It produced the beginnings of many galaxies. At first there were resonances of planck length. These quickly grabbed each other to produce quarks, then neutrons, hydrogen, some helium, and stars. Prodigious amounts of radiant energy roar out with each step. The resonances are more than simple vibrating strings. The planck resonance has within it the nodes for the multiple constants required in making our universe, analogous to the RNA in a cell.
The first white holes blew off the new matter far into space in jets, but with much more stuff forming a central bulge, which over time spins out its material into a spiral disk around the great white father. Stars around the white hole are regularly kicked out. The big bang banged everywhere, and what we see from the far reaches of the universe is what we looked like more than thirteen billion years ago. The cosmic background radiation supports this view. If you want to know what distant space looks like now, look around you. A long time ago, there were discrete fuzzy proto-galaxies, rather than a fog gathering into galaxies. Then more and more spiral galaxies. Spirals merge to form ellipticals over time. Density waves radiating out from the white hole aided the rapid development of stars. When galaxies merge, they kick out many stars into the inter-galaxy space. Many or these stars may have habitable zones where the planets form. There may be many more habitable zones in the universe than we have ever thought.
Is there an edge to the universe, and is there space outside it? Yes, perhaps there is another brane waiting to be activated, or many branes. It is useless to speculate as to what is out there.
What about the particle zoo? There is the neutron, with the entanglements of resonances within it. There are the daughters, the electron and the proton. These can be knocked up to higher energy levels. Then there are brief resonances and heavy particles which show up when stable particles are blasted, as in the particle accelerators. It took a great deal of energy to put these things together, and it takes a lot to tear them apart.
You spoke of the white holes, the things that are called super-massive black holes in the present standard model. But are there mini black holes or other black holes in my universe? Possibly not. Massive stars blow up to create heavy atoms. They leave neutron stars behind. Super massive stars take from a few to many seconds to blow up. It takes time. As they blow, they become lighter and have less gravity. According to some calculations, they leave nothing behind. Infinity and zero are the same number in the real world. There are only super-massive white holes in your universe.
Mernyth, still persistent, asked about galaxy rotation. The white hole in its rotation drags matrix and matter around with it. As a star is held together by the balance between gravity and the outward pressure of fusion, a galaxy has to balance the weight of the matrix, the outward expansion of matter from the white hole, and rotation of the white hole. By the way, galaxies have many times the advertised mass. A massive bubble of hydrogen surrounds galaxies. Is there then a need for dark energy.
Regarding gravitational lensing, the standard model explains that light is bent as it passes by a massive object. The theory of your universe explains why it is so. Remember, the presence of mass thins nearby matrix.
Is information lost in my universe, asked Mernyth? Information may never be lost, but where it is . . . that is another subject. Information regarding the future does not exist. Nothing happens before it happens. In your universe, there is no time travel into the past, much less into the future. But since information is never lost, scenes of the past in two dimensions could perhaps be visited, but one could never enter them. The arrow of time is real, and three space dimensions are real in your universe. The relativity of time is also real.
How far apart is the parent universe from my universe? Don’t grow faint, Mernyth. That universe may occupy the same space as our universe. It is not out there somewhere far away. The wormhole may not be that long. Just as neutrinos can pass through the matrix scarcely interacting with matter, the parent universe does not interact with our universe at all, and is not directly perceived by us. Perhaps opened by the production of antimatter, its contact with us is through the wormhole. The produced antimatter is in sufficient amounts to keep it in balance with the matter in the galaxy.
Does my universe expand? Now that’s difficult, Mernyth. When we look at the universe, the more nearby galaxies are grouped close together in clusters, super-clusters, walls, and filaments. Looking back billions years, they are father apart; back thirteen billion years and they are far apart, fuzzy, and independent. It looks like the galaxies are in the process of moving into one happy bunch. We live in a big crunch. Our Milky Way galaxy is itself moving away from a void.
What about the redshift of radiation? Does this not show that the galaxies are moving away from each other and the further away they are, the faster they are moving away? Redshift certainly indicates distance, but is it caused by expansion of the universe, or by something else. The time for radiation to pass through the matrix is a function of the amount of matter it passes through. For instance, there is a lot of stuff for light to pass through in a prism. While in a prism, the light seems to move more slowly. There is also a lot of stuff for light to pass through in a billion light years. In your universe the galaxies are groupies that like to be near each other and are moving in that direction. Perhaps your universe will one day become one big elliptical galaxy. After that, as matter continues to come together, mass is slowly converted to radiant energy, density waves in the matrix. These interfere with each other, and the matrix becomes calm. The universe quietly passes out of existence, and all is as it was before.
I see, but what is my universe called, demanded Mernyth. Perhaps the Mernyth Universe, said I, inasmuch as I have the feeling that you knew these things before you asked about them. But my brain is now tired, let’s let others decide if we actually live in the Newton universe, or in the present standard model. Mernyth protested. It should be called Newton’s universe, as it is the simplest model that fulfills the criteria. It is real . . . but I am virtual.